Infection Control Guidelines and Standards (excerpts)

 
유럽

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) Infection Control Standards

  • Goal #7: Reduce the risk of health-care-associated infections.
  • Requirement #7B: Manage as sentinel events all identified cases of unanticipated death or major permanent loss of function associated with a health-care-associated infection.
  • Full compliance required as of January 1, 2005

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) Website

위로

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Guidelines

  • Controlling the Spread of Waterborne Microorganisms
“Eliminate contaminated water or fluid environmental reservoirs (e.g. in equipment or solutions) wherever possible"
  • Preventing Legionnaires Disease in Protective Environments and Transplant Units

“If Legionella spp. are determined to be present in the water of a transplant unit, implement certain measures until Legionella spp. are no longer detected by culture.

Decontaminate the water supply.

Do not use water from the faucets in patient-care rooms to avoid creating infectious aerosols.

Restrict severely immunocompromised patients from taking showers…”

  • Prevention and Control of Health-Care-Associated Legionnaires Disease

“Health-care facilities with hematopoietic stem cell or solid-organ transplantation programs. If Legionellae are detected in the potable water supply of a transplant unit, and until Legionellae are no longer detected by culture:

Restrict severely immunocompromised patients from taking showers.
Do not use water from faucets with Legionella-contaminated water in patients’ rooms to avoid creating infectious aerosols.”

  • Control of Specific Nosocomial Infections/Recommendations Regarding Legionella Species:

“…conduct a thorough epidemiologic and environmental investigation to determine the likely environmental source(s) of Legionella species (e.g. showers, tap water faucets, cooling towers and hot water tanks.)”

  • Control of Specific Nosocomial Infections/Recommendations Regarding Legionella Species:

“The source of Legionella infection should be identified and decontaminated or removed.”

 “…the goal, if environmental surveillance for Legionellae is undertaken, should be to maintain water systems with no detectable organisms.”


Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Website

위로

World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines

Proposed protection measures to prevent drinking waterborne infections in
immunocompromised patients

Protection Level I – Mild Immunosuppression:
“Avoid any circumstance with elevated infection risk (like drinking water from uncontrolled sources)”

Protection Level II - Moderate Immunosuppression:
“Drinking water should have an additional antimicrobial barrier to tap water
Bathroom installations should be controlled for bacterial reservoirs”

Protection Level III - Severe Immunosuppression:
“Any water for human use should have very low bacterial count (use water filters/controlled carbonated water)
Strict control of bath installation and water for showering (showering to be avoided if no control possible)”

Protection Level IV - Extreme Immunosuppression:
“Only sterile fluids for drinking, mouth care and washing allowed”


World Health Organization (WHO) Website

위로